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Study Skills

Systematic Reviews: Critical Appraisal

Critical Appraisal

There are a number of tools and checklists available to help assess the quality of studies to be included in a review. Studies included in a systematic review should be assessed for their quality and only good and reliable studies should be included.


These are some books which you might find useful when critically appraising research. Click on the link to access the iDiscover (link opens in new window) record for the book.

Image of the book How to read a paper      

iDiscover link to How to Read a Paper (link opens in new window)

Image of The pocket guide to critical appraisal

iDiscover link to The Pocket Guide to Critical Appraisal (link opens in new window)



Image credit: StockSnap on Pixabay (CC0 license).

  • CASP (link opens in new window) — Critical Appraisal Skills Programme includes checklists for systematic reviews, RCTs, qualitative studies etc.
  • RoBiS (link opens in new window) — Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews
  • RoB 2 (link opens in new window) — Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials
  • AACODS (link opens in new window)— Checklist for appraising grey literature


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Subjects: Clinical Medicine

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